Research > Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka is an island, which has area of 65,610 square kilometers and lies between 6-10 of North latitude and 80-82 of East longitude, in the Indian Ocean. It is marvelous in the topography which starts from coastal zone and goes more than 2500 meters to the top of the hill in the middle part of the country. The average mean temperature along the coast is around 27 c (80 F) and 15 c (59 F) in the hill country. The relative humidity varies from 70% during the day to 90% at night.
Weather that averaged over time, usually more than 30 years is called as the climate. The average weather which trends in an area is called as regional climate. Since the Earth began, our climate has been changing constantly with periods of global warming and global cooling, even before the human beings and their activities began.
Natural recorders like ocean and lake sediments, ice cores, fossils, tree rings and corals give evidences for climate change. These are called as proxies. Climate change is caused by a combination of both natural and human induced factors. The Earth’s climate varies naturally as a result of interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean, changes in the Earth’s orbit, fluctuations in energy received from the sun and volcanic eruptions. Human activities also contribute towards the climate change through emissions and changes in land use.
Sri Lanka is having a tropical climate where its rain predominantly influenced by two monsoons namely North-east and South-west and subsidiary influenced by two monsoons namely first inter monsoon and second inter monsoon. There are three climatic zones in Sri Lanka namely, wet zone, dry zone and intermediate zone. The mean temperature and rainfall respectively in the dry zone is about 28 Celsius and less than 1750mm, for Intermediate zone varies from 24 to 26 Celsius and from 1750 to 2500mm, while wet zone is about 24 Celsius and more than 2500mm. Major rivers originated at central hills flows in a radial pattern through coastal plains towards the sea.
The climate of Sri Lanka is also conducive to forest cover. One time the forestry cover existed at a considerable share has dropped to less than two third in the land area as a result of deforestation.
Sri Lanka’s economy heavily depends upon agriculture. Agriculture sector constitutes of two sectors, the produce, of plantation crops mainly catered to the export market while small holding or peasantry sector producing mainly for the domestic market. The first sector synthesized with tea, rubber, and coconut, cocoa, coffee, cinnamon, cloves and cardamom mainly catered to the foreign market. Paddy is the main crop which cultivates about 600,000 hectares in the main season and 350,000 hectares in the second season produced for the domestic market.
In contrast, adapting to climate change may be more important for Sri Lanka. Being a small island, Global warming is expected to lead to a rise in sea level, higher temperatures, more frequent and prolonged droughts, high intensity rainfalls and increased thunder activity. This climate change highly effect for the agriculture. Therefore, it is very essential to study about strategies of adaptation to climatic change.